This Masterclass gives a comprehensive overview of the different physical models used to describe and analyse a machining process and of the basic mechanisms associated with it. A considerable number of practical models and guidelines are outlined. The aim is to provide an adequate understanding of the machining process in different types of workpiece material. Also, a link is made between machining technology, production economics and environmental impact. The primary purpose of this Masterclass is to give practical models to work towards a productive and cost-efficient metal cutting process that creates a minimum load on the environment. Most of the relationships, models and guidelines described have been verified experimentally in a wide variety of workpiece materials.


The behaviour of the machining process is the result of an interaction between the shape and material properties of the workpiece, the geometry of the cutting tool and the properties of the cutting material, the characteristics of the machine tool and auxiliary equipment as well as the cutting conditions employed and the impact it has on the environment. To understand a metal cutting process and the interactions between all the different elements, it is crucial to have an insight into the process conditions which develop between the workpiece and the cutting edge. These process conditions are determined and described by the combination of the mechanical, thermal, chemical, tribological and environmental loads.

The interaction between the load situation during the cutting process and the properties of the cutting tool gives a certain tool wear which leads to a certain tool life. This defines a total amount of workpiece material which is removed by a cutting edge under given process conditions. These conditions result in a machining time required for finishing a workpiece with a certain quality, which in turn represents a certain manufacturing cost.

The aim is to facilitate knowledge sharing, networking and the demonstration of cost efficiency, productivity and continuous improvement trends, technology and innovations.



This Master Class focuses on managing directors, operations managers, heads of production, plant managers, manufacturing managers, engineering managers, senior engineers etc. who want to understand, control and work with the key indicators that are defining and guiding a controllable and reliable machining process.

Introduction to NEXT STEP production concept

  • HMLV type production, challenges and solutions
  • Industry4.0 and NEXT STEP concept

Resource efficient machining process and system

  • Group technology
  • Standardisation and rationalisation

People in a machining environment

  • Role and mission
  • Knowledge and skills
  • Mindset and motivation, leadership

Detailed definition of machining as physical process

  • General introduction
  • Process kinematics of a metal cutting process
  • General description of a cutting tool
  • Machinability models for different workpiece materials
  • Chip formation models
  • Models for cutting forces
  • Thermal analysis of a cutting operation
  • Tool deterioration and tool life
  • Quality of the machined surface
  • Best practices for practical cutting process technological optimisation

Total production economics

  • Definition
  • 5 key elements: costs, productivity, quality, yield and sustainability
  • CPR and EIPR factors, how to use

Full background information and reference can be found in the books Knowledge, Skills and Insight makes sustainable Machining; Applied Metal Cutting Physics, Best Practice; Global Tool Deterioration, Best Practice and other STEP technical publications.